Updated: 04/24/2024

Prop Trading vs Hedge Funds: A Detailed Comparison

understanding proprietary trading 1
.14 Sep 2023
author avatar image Chad Smith

Table of Contents

As financial landscapes continuously evolve and diversify, two particular sectors emerge as complex and highly fascinating phenomena: Proprietary trading and Hedge funds. These distinctive trading and investment realms are driven by dynamic strategies, encompassing market risks and prospective returns, populated by diverse key players and regulated within unique legislative frameworks. This deep dive provides a holistic view of their operational domains, examines the key differences between these entities, and brings to light a detailed analysis of the risks and returns associated with each. The study also offers a comprehensive exploration of current trends influencing these sectors and provides a considered outlook into their future trajectory influenced by technological advancements, legislative changes, and global economic changes.

Understanding Proprietary Trading

Understanding Proprietary Trading

Proprietary trading, commonly referred to as prop trading, is when a financial institution or individual invests for direct market gain rather than earning commission from clients. The decision-making process in prop trading generally doesn’t involve clients and allows traders to utilise various investment strategies to exploit market events.

At its core, prop trading involves a financial institution making speculative investments using its own resources, as opposed to executing trades on behalf of clients. Prop traders are given full responsibility and autonomy over their trading decisions, without needing to consider the suitability for clients. The profitability of a prop trader depends entirely on the results of the investments they make.

Since proprietary trading firms risk their capital, they generally adopt aggressive strategies in the hope of realising substantial profits. These strategies can range from day trading to momentum trading and can be implemented across all asset classes including stocks, bonds, commodities, and derivatives.

Key Players in Proprietary Trading

Significant players in the proprietary trading industry often include tier-1 investment banks such as Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, and JPMorgan Chase. These banks not only facilitate transactions for clients but also engage in prop trading. They leverage in-depth market research and sophisticated analytical models to predict market movements and make profitable trades.

In addition to these large banking institutions, there are also several proprietary trading firms that operate independently. These firms are usually less regulated, more flexible, and typically deploy advanced technologies to gain a competitive edge in the market.

Understanding Proprietary Trading Strategies

Prop traders employ a variety of trading strategies to maximise profit and minimise risk. These strategies can incorporate elements of technical analysis, trend following, arbitrage, and many others.

Market Making

In market-making, prop traders provide liquidity in the market by quoting both a buy and a sell price in a financial instrument, hoping to make a profit on the bid-offer spread.


Prop traders that follow the scalping strategy try to take advantage of small price gaps created by bid-ask spreads. They buy at the bid price and sell at the ask price to receive the difference.


Arbitrage involves simultaneously purchasing and selling a security in different markets to profit from a difference in the price. The trade leverages price discrepancies to make risk-free profits.

Regulatory Compliance Issues

Proprietary trading firms are subjected to extensive regulation and supervision. They are expected to adhere to the Volcker Rule, a regulation stemming from the Dodd-Frank Act, which essentially restricts banks from making certain kinds of speculative investments. Regulatory bodies are interested in ensuring that these organisations do not take on excessive risk which could destabilise the financial system.

Proprietary Trading Versus Hedge Funds

The primary distinction between proprietary trading and hedge funds pertains to the use of capital. Proprietary traders speculate using the company’s capital, while hedge funds manage client money for a fee and a share of the profits.

Another key difference lies in the regulatory framework. As previously mentioned, prop trading firms are highly regulated. Conversely, hedge funds are less regulated due to their classification as private investment vehicles.


Drawing to a close, gaining a comprehensive understanding of prop trading requires a thorough knowledge about the associated risks, implemented strategies, significant players, and the governing regulatory environment. Such an understanding enables a well-informed comparison to other similar sectors, such as hedge funds, thereby aiding in making insightful investment decisions.

A diagram showing two arrows, one representing proprietary trading and another representing hedge funds, with a question mark in the middle, symbolizing the comparison and contrasting of the two concepts.

Insight into Hedge Funds

The Concept of Hedge Funds

Hedge funds represent investment tools that consolidate capital from certified individuals or institution-based investors, employing various strategies to generate active returns for their investors. They are characterised by their higher level of flexibility compared to mutual funds, possessing the capacity to take either the long or short route, exploit leverage and derivatives, and achieve profit regardless of whether the markets are ascending or descending.

Operational Style of Hedge Funds

Hedge funds are managed aggressively, utilising advanced investment strategies like leveraged, long, short and derivative positions in both domestic and international markets, to generate high returns. The operational style of hedge funds is a stark contrast to mutual funds which operate under various restrictions related to short selling, leverage, and derivatives. Hedge funds’ flexibility with investment strategies is attributed to their exemption from direct regulatory oversight, allowing a single hedge fund to invest in a broad range of securities globally.

Risk Levels in Hedge Funds

The nature of activities hedge funds engage in invariably implies a significant level of risk. This stems mainly due to their use of derivatives and leverage, which both have the potential for significant losses. This risk, however, is managed by hedging against downturns in the markets, hence the name ‘hedge fund’. Even so, the potential for high returns comes with potential for considerable losses.

Types of Hedge Fund Strategies

There are numerous hedge fund strategies employed by fund managers to achieve their desired returns. These include Event-Driven Strategies, Global Macro Strategies, Relative Value Strategies, and Equity Market Neutral Strategies. These strategic approaches cater to diverse investment needs and risk appetites, thereby making hedge funds an appealing alternative investment option.

Key Players in the Hedge Fund Industry

Some of the major players in the hedge fund industry include Bridgewater Associates, Renaissance Technologies, and AQR Capital Management. These hedge funds have shown phenomenal performance and have established themselves as leaders in the industry.

Pros and Cons of Investing in Hedge Funds

Investing in hedge funds has several pros. They include high returns potential, diversification, and access to advanced investment strategies. However, the cons are also significant, including higher fees, risk of significant losses, lack of transparency, and limited liquidity due to lock-up periods.

Regulatory Landscape of Hedge Funds

Hedge funds are typically less regulated than mutual funds, due to the nature of their investors. Most investors in hedge funds are institutional investors or accredited individuals who are considered to have the financial acumen to understand and undertake more risk. However, hedge funds are required to follow anti-fraud laws, and the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) started to increase regulations after the 2008 financial crisis.

Proprietary Trading vs Hedge Funds

Proprietary trading or ‘prop trading’ is trading for the firm’s direct gain as opposed to earning commission from trading on behalf of clients. It involves major financial firms that employ prop traders, who utilise their firm’s own money for investment purposes.

The key difference between prop trading and hedge funds lies in the goal and risk level of each. Prop traders aim to take advantage of short-term market events, while hedge funds aim for consistent returns over the long term. Also, regulatory constraints exist for prop trading but are relatively less restrictive for hedge funds.

To Summarise

Prop trading and hedge funds each have different objectives and cater to distinct investor requirements. Prop trading is fundamentally about immediate capital, swift profits and market volatility. In contrast, hedge funds focus on achieving superior long-term returns for investors with a prominent aspect of hedging against market risks. An individual’s choice between the two is heavily influenced by their financial goals, risk tolerance and investment duration.

An image depicting a financial graph displaying the performance of hedge funds.

Comparing Prop Trading and Hedge Funds

Proprietary Trading (Prop Trading)

Also commonly referred to as prop trading, proprietary trading is a financial model where a firm or financial institution trades various financial instruments like stocks, bonds, currencies and commodities using its own capital, rather than clients’ funds. This ensures that the firm retains entire profits made from such transactions, but also carries the risk of substantial financial losses.

Prop trading firms often adopt aggressive strategies and utilise complex algorithms to capitalise on short-term market volatility. Taking both long (buying) and short (selling) positions to benefit from fluctuating market conditions, prop trading firms use leverage to enhance their trading positions. While this amplification can result in significantly increased gains, it also escalates the potential for losses.

Hedge Funds

On the other hand, a hedge fund is an investment partnership where a fund manager (the general partner) makes investments using the money collected from the investors (the limited partners). These funds use different strategies, such as leveraging, long, short and derivative positions in both domestic and international markets with the aim of generating high returns.

Hedge funds often insist on investors keeping their money in the fund for at least a year – the so-called “lock-up period”. This is to ensure that the fund manager has enough time to implement their complex investment strategies. Hedge funds seek absolute returns, that means they aim to make a positive return irrespective of market conditions, making them potentially less risky than prop trading.

Hedge fund strategies vary enormously — many hedge against downturns in the markets — especially important today with volatility and anticipation of corrections in overheated stock markets. The primary aim of most hedge funds is to reduce volatility and risk, preserve capital and deliver positive (more than zero) returns under all market conditions.

Risk Profiles and Returns

The risk profile for hedge funds and prop trading firms is very different. Prop trading is generally considered riskier due to the aggressive trading strategies often employed, the use of leverage, and the fact that all risk is borne by the firm itself. In contrast, hedge funds often employ strategies to mitigate risk and manage volatility. Furthermore, the risk in hedge funds is spread among the investors.

In terms of return potential, both prop trading and hedge funds have the potential for high returns. However, the returns for prop trading can be significantly higher due to the leverage used and the aggressive trading strategies. Hedge funds, on the other hand, aim to provide consistent returns, irrespective of the overall market conditions.

Investor Profiles

Hedge funds and prop trading firms tend to attract different types of investors. Prop trading firms rarely deal with private investors, as the strategies used require substantial capital investment, a thorough understanding of financial markets, and a high-risk appetite. Hedge funds, on the other hand, attract a wide range of investors, including private individuals, institutional investors, and pension funds.

Regulatory Constraints and Degree of Transparency

Considering regulation, prop trading companies encounter lesser stringent rules than hedge funds due to the fact they utilise their own capital. This grants them the liberty to implement a broader variety of strategies and adapt more rapidly to market fluctuations. Nonetheless, this can result in decreased transparency that poses potential conflicts of interest.

On another note, hedge funds operating under the oversight of either the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the US or the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) in the UK are obliged to adhere to rigorous rules on disclosure, advertising, and reporting. These regulations offer a certain safeguard to investors, albeit at the expense of restricting the fund’s strategic choices. Despite stringently regulated activities, hedge funds are still known for their relatively opaque operations compared to conventional investment options.

Comparison between proprietary trading and hedge funds, showcasing the differences in risk profiles, returns, investor profiles, and regulatory restrictions.

Risk & Return Analysis

Handling Market Risk in Prop Trading and Hedge Funds

Market risk, accounting for potential losses arising from broad market movements, is a considerable concern in both prop trading and hedge funds. It’s worth highlighting that prop trading companies typically incur high market risks. Short-term investments are often preferred by prop traders, as a result, they are frequently exposed to sudden market transitions. However, hedge funds endeavour to mitigate this risk by employing intricate strategies, such as short selling securities or leveraging derivatives. Despite these defences, they are not completely exempt from the unpredictability of market conditions.

Credit Risk and Its Impact

Credit risk is another concern. It pertains to the danger that a counterparty will default on a financial obligation. In the context of prop trading, this risk tends to be lower, mostly due to the short-term nature of the transactions. However, the picture is quite different for hedge funds. These vehicles often engage in over-the-counter transactions with derivative instruments which can increase the credit risk. Moreover, many hedge funds resort to leveraging to boost their returns, which further compounds this risk.

The Liquidity Risk Factor

Liquidity risk refers to the risk of not being able to buy or sell an investment quickly enough to prevent or minimise a loss. In prop trading, liquidity risk can be a serious problem, especially when trading in illiquid markets or sizeable positions. Conversely, hedge funds can also face substantial liquidity risk. Many funds restrict investor withdrawals to specific periods, which can be troublesome if a large number of investors demand their money back simultaneously. In addition, certain types of hedge fund strategies, such as distressed debt or merger arbitrage, operate in less liquid markets, augmenting the risk.

Operational Risk in Prop Trading and Hedge Funds

Operational risk encompasses the risk created by inadequate or failed processes, people, and internal systems, or from external events. Both prop trading and hedge funds are subject to this type of risk. In prop trading, the risk can be magnified if there’s a lack of stringent control, management and oversight policies. In hedge funds, operational risk can come in many forms, including valuation issues, erroneous execution of trades, fraud, or technology failures.

Effect of Risks on Returns

Risks can greatly influence the returns in both prop trading and hedge funds. Prop trading, with its high market risk, can induce considerable losses especially when a trade, intensified by high leverage, fails. Alternatively, whilst the sophisticated risk management strategies employed by hedge funds may mitigate some loss, they can also be counterproductive, leading to substantial financial setbacks.

Furthermore, the credit risk has a potential to damage returns, originating from a default on financial obligations by a counterparty. This risk is comparably lower for prop traders but quite significant for hedge funds, more so for those that utilise high leverage or trade derivatives.

Operational risk is another factor affecting returns. In prop trading, lack of adequate oversight, management and control can lead to losses. For hedge funds, operational risks could be diverse, ranging from valuation issues and flawed trade executions to fraud and technology failures. Ultimately, the inability to exit a position promptly and on favourable terms, can further heighten liquidity risk, thus harming returns.

In conclusion, both prop trading and hedge funds carry the potential for high returns as well as substantial risks. Managing these risks scrupulously is imperative to protect capital and maintain sustainable profitability.

Image depicting market risk and credit risk in prop trading and hedge funds

Current Trends and Future Outlook

Recent Developments in Prop Trading

Proprietary trading, or prop trading, occurs when a financial firm trades in financial instruments like stocks, bonds, commodities or currencies using its own funds as opposed to its clients’. The face of prop trading has been greatly reshaped by recent technological advancements. High-frequency trading (HFT), algorithmic trading and AI-powered investment approaches are now the industry standard, enabling lighting-fast trading decisions based on advanced algorithms and volatile market dynamics.

Additionally, regulatory changes have significantly touched the prop trading sector. With the introduction of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform Act in the U.S., the Volcker Rule was established, bringing in regulations on prop trading by commercial banks and their affiliates. This has instigated some banks to spin off their prop trading departments into independent entities or into hedge funds.

Current Trends in Hedge Funds

The hedge fund industry mainly deploys pooled funds using a range of strategies to generate high returns for their investors. Like prop trading, hedge funds are also increasingly leveraging cutting-edge technology, especially for risk management and predictive analytics purposes.

Hedge funds are becoming more transparent and investor-friendly due to regulatory pressure and changing investor demands. In response to demands for enhanced transparency, many funds now provide more detailed and frequent updates about their holdings, strategies, and performance.

The trend towards fee compression continues in the hedge fund space. More and more funds are deviating from the traditional ‘2 and 20’ fee structure (2% asset management fee and 20% performance fee) and are moving towards a model where fees are more closely linked to performance.

Future Outlook: Prop Trading and Hedge Funds

The realm of prop trading and hedge funds is poised for continuous change and evolution, largely driven by technological innovation, regulatory requirements, and market conditions. AI and machine learning will likely play an increasingly significant role in trading strategies.

Despite the constraints brought by regulations such as the Volcker Rule, prop trading isn’t likely to disappear. It may evolve, with more trading houses becoming or acting like hedge funds or private equity firms, exploiting regulatory gray areas, or venturing into less regulated markets.

Challenging market conditions and the demand for better returns could lead hedge funds to adopt more aggressive and diverse strategies. They might also expand their investment horizons to include unconventional assets like cryptocurrencies.

However, this evolution won’t be without challenges. Both these segments will have to manoeuvre through the changing regulatory landscape carefully. Striking the right balance between sophisticated, tech-driven strategies and risk management will be key in creating sustainable, lucrative business models in the prop trading and hedge fund industries.

Illustration of stock market data and technology

The exploration of the intricacies of Proprietary Trading and Hedge Funds unearths an interesting paradox of mid-high risk tolerance, potential for substantial returns, and a demanding regulatory landscape creating a unique environment for investment. These sectors are unmistakably both challenging and rewarding, promising substantial financial gains and posing consequential risks. Whilst up-to-date trends point towards an increasing influence of technology and a continually shifting regulatory environment, the future of prop trading and hedge funds remains largely dependent on adaptive strategies and resilience in the face of global economic uncertainty. Therefore, a keen understanding of these sectors, as provided herein, remains instrumental to navigating this compelling yet intricate financial landscape.

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Chad Smith

Chad Smith is the Director of Research & Analysis here at ForexBrokerListing.com. Chad previously served as an Editor for a number of websites related to finance and trading, where he authored a significant number of published articles about trading and the impact of technology in transforming investing as we know it. Overall, Chad is an active fintech and crypto industry researcher with more than 15 years of trading experience, and you can find him teaching his dog how to trade in his free time.